Authorize in the UI

Using Oso to control UI components

The access control rules that you use to authorize data access in your application’s backend often have implications for the frontend as well. For example, you may want to hide a button that links to another page if the current user doesn’t have access to that page. Or perhaps you’d like to display an “edit” button only if the user is actually allowed to edit the resource in question.

These are examples of what we at Oso call “Authorization-Dependent UI Elements.” In this guide we’ll explain how you can use Oso to implement these kinds of features in your app.


We don’t currently provide a version of Oso that runs in the browser. This guide covers how to query for information in the backend that can be sent to your frontend service.

Getting a user’s allowed actions

If you’re familiar with Oso, you know that Oso policies contain allow rules that specify that an actor is allowed to take an action on a resource.

In many cases, like when you are authorizing a specific request in the backend, you’ll just want to know if a specific (actor, action, resource) combination is allowed, e.g., is allowed to "READ" Expense{id: 1}? For these yes/no queries, we provide the Oso.is_allowed() method.

But when you’re deciding what to display to Alice in the frontend, you may want more information. It can be especially useful to know all the actions that Alice is allowed to take on the Expense{id: 1} resource, not just whether or not she can read it. In this case, you can use the Oso.get_allowed_actions() method to get a list of Alice’s allowed actions and return them to your frontend.

Let’s look at an example. Imagine we have a GitHub-like app that gives users access to repositories. The page to view a specific repository looks like this:


On this page there are several components that we may want to control based on the actions the current user is allowed to take. For example, we may want to hide the “Manage Access” or “Delete Repository” links depending on whether the user is allowed to take those actions.

In this situation, the Oso.get_allowed_actions() method can be very helpful. The method returns a list of actions that a user is allowed to take on a specific resource. In our example, we call Oso.get_allowed_actions() in the route handler for the “Show repository” view to get the user’s allowed actions for the current repo:

def repos_show(org_id, repo_id):
    # Get repo
    repo = Repository.query.get(repo_id)

    # Authorize repo access
    current_app.oso.authorize(repo, action="READ")

    # Get allowed actions on the repo
    actions = current_app.base_oso.get_allowed_actions(
        get_current_user(), repo
    # Send allowed actions to template (or frontend)
    return render_template(

In our demo app, when we call Oso.get_allowed_actions() with the user, we get back:


But when we call with a different user,, we get:

actions = ['READ', 'CREATE', 'LIST_ISSUES']

The allowed actions for each user are determined by the Oso policy. In this case, our policy has the following rules:

# Repository Permissions
# ----------------------

# Repository members can read and list issues for the repo
allow(user: User, action: String, repo: Repository) if
    repo.is_member(user) and
    action in ["READ", "LIST_ISSUES"];

# Repository admins can list roles and delete the repo
allow(user: User, action: String, repo: Repository) if
    repo.is_admin(user) and
    action in ["LIST_ROLES", "DELETE"];

# Members of the parent organization can create new repos
allow(user: User, "CREATE", repo: Repository) if

The users Mike and Sully have the following attributes:

  • Mike and Sully are both members of the parent organization (Monsters Inc.), so they can both create repositories in the organization
  • Mike is the admin of the “Paperwork” repository, so he can list roles and delete the repo, in addition to reading and listing issues
  • Sully is a member of the “Paperwork” repository, so he can only read the repo and list issues

Based on these user attributes and our policy, we can see why Mike is allowed to take more actions on the repository than Sully.

With this relatively straightforward policy, it’s easy to trace where the users' allowed actions come from. But Oso.get_allowed_actions() can be especially powerful with more complicated policies. For example, if we used Oso’s SQLAlchemy Roles library features, we could have a policy that looks like this instead:

# Repository Permissions
# ----------------------

# Members of the parent organization can create new repos
role_allow(_role: OrganizationRole{name: "MEMBER"}, "CREATE", _repo: Repository);

# Users with the "READ" role can read and list issues for the repo
role_allow(_role: RepositoryRole{name: "READ"}, action: String, _repo: Repository) if
    action in ["READ", "LIST_ISSUES"];

# Users with the "ADMIN" role can list roles and delete the repo
role_allow(_role: RepositoryRole{name: "ADMIN"}, action: String, _repo: Repository) if
    action in ["LIST_ROLES", "DELETE"];

# Role Hierarchies
# ----------------

# Specify repository role order (most senior on left)
repository_role_order(["ADMIN", "MAINTAIN", "WRITE", "TRIAGE", "READ"]);

Now the users' allowed actions depend on their assigned roles for both the repository and the parent organization, as well as the hierarchy of the repository roles (for more information on implementing RBAC with Oso, check out our guide).

Even with this more complicated policy, we’ll still get the correct allowed actions for Mike and Sully.

Using allowed actions in the frontend

Since Mike has permission to “LIST_ROLES” and “DELETE” the repo, he should be able to see the “Manage Access” and “Delete” buttons, but Sully should not. We can implement this with a simple check in our template:

{% if "LIST_ROLES" in actions %}
  <a href={{ url_for('routes.repo_roles_index', org_id=org_id, }}>
    <h4 class="text-primary">
        <pre>Manage Access</pre>
{% endif %}
{% if "DELETE" in actions %}
<br />
<form action={{ url_for('routes.repos_show', org_id=org_id, }} method="POST">
  <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit" name="delete_repo" value="">
    Delete Repository
{% endif %}

Now when Sully logs in, the buttons are hidden:


Our example uses Flask templates for the UI, but the allowed actions could be sent to the frontend to make UI decisions in React, Vue or any other client UI framework.